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Genomic evidence for global ocean plankton biogeography shaped by large-scale current systems

Daniel Richter 1 Romain Watteaux 2 Thomas Vannier 3 Jade Leconte 4 Paul Frémont 5 Gabriel Reygondeau 6 Nicolas Maillet 7 Nicolas Henry 1 Gaëtan Benoit 8 Antonio Fernandez-Guerra 9 Samir Suweis 10, 11 Romain Narci 12 Cédric Berney 13 Damien Eveillard 14 Frédérick Gavory 5 Lionel Guidi 15 Karine Labadie 16 Eric Mahieu 15 Julie Poulain 5 Sarah Romac 13 Simon Roux 17 Céline Dimier 13 Stefanie Kandels 18 Marc Picheral 15 Sarah Searson 15 Stéphane Pesant 19 Jean-Marc Aury 5 Jennifer Brum 20 Claire Lemaitre 21 Eric Pelletier 5 Peer Bork 22 Shinichi Sunagawa 22 Lee Karp-Boss 23 Chris Bowler 18 Matthew Sullivan 24 Eric Karsenti 18 Mahendra Mariadassou 12 Ian Probert 13 Pierre Peterlongo 21 Patrick Wincker 5 Colomban de Vargas 13 Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà 25 Daniele Iudicone 25 Olivier Jaillon 5
Abstract : Biogeographical studies have traditionally focused on readily visible organisms, but recent technological advances are enabling analyses of the large-scale distribution of microscopic organisms, whose biogeographical patterns have long been debated1,2. The most prominent global biogeography of marine plankton was derived by Longhurst3 based on parameters principally associated with photosynthetic plankton. Localized studies of selected plankton taxa or specific organismal sizes1,4–7 have mapped community structure and begun to assess the roles of environment and ocean current transport in shaping these patterns2,8. Here we assess global plankton biogeography and its relation to the biological, chemical and physical context of the ocean (the ‘seascape’) by analyzing 24 terabases of metagenomic sequence data and 739 million metabarcodes from the Tara Oceans expedition in light of environmental data and simulated ocean current transport. In addition to significant local heterogeneity, viral, prokaryotic and eukaryotic plankton communities all display near steady-state, large-scale, size-dependent biogeographical patterns. Correlation analyses between plankto transport time and metagenomic or environmental dissimilarity reveal the existence of basin-scale biological and environmental continua emerging within the main current systems. Across oceans, there is a measurable, continuous change within communities and environmental factors up to an average of 1.5 years of travel time. Modulation of plankton communities during transport varies with organismal size, such that the distribution of smaller plankton best matches Longhurst biogeochemical provinces, whereas larger plankton group into larger provinces. Together these findings provide an integrated framework to interpret plankton community organization in its physico-chemical context, paving the way to a better understanding of oceanic ecosystem functioning in a changing global environment.
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Daniel Richter, Romain Watteaux, Thomas Vannier, Jade Leconte, Paul Frémont, et al.. Genomic evidence for global ocean plankton biogeography shaped by large-scale current systems. 2020. ⟨hal-02399723⟩

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